Fighting for Your Life: The African American Criminal Justice Survival Guide

A Brief History of Slavery That You Didn't Learn in School
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The initial tactic of the party utilized contemporary open-carry gun laws to protect Party members when policing the police.

This act was done in order to record incidents of police brutality by distantly following police cars around neighborhoods. The Black Panther Party's focus on militancy was often construed as open hostility, [50] [51] feeding a reputation of violence even though early efforts by the Panthers focused primarily on promoting social issues and the exercise of their legal right to carry arms.

The Debate Between W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington

The Panthers employed a California law that permitted carrying a loaded rifle or shotgun as long as it was publicly displayed and pointed at no one. For example, chants like "The Revolution has come, it's time to pick up the gun. Off the pigs! The black community of Richmond, California , wanted protection against police brutality. On May 2, , the California State Assembly Committee on Criminal Procedure was scheduled to convene to discuss what was known as the " Mulford Act ", which would make the public carrying of loaded firearms illegal.

Eldridge Cleaver and Newton put together a plan to send a group of 26 armed Panthers led by Seale from Oakland to Sacramento to protest the bill.

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The group entered the assembly carrying their weapons, an incident which was widely publicized, and which prompted police to arrest Seale and five others. The group pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges of disrupting a legislative session. In May , the Panthers invaded the State Assembly Chamber in Sacramento , guns in hand, in what appears to have been a publicity stunt. Still, they scared a lot of important people that day. At the time, the Panthers had almost no following.

Now, a year later however, their leaders speak on invitation almost anywhere radicals gather, and many whites wear "Honkeys for Huey " buttons, supporting the fight to free Newton, who has been in jail since last Oct.

In Memoriam

Edgar Hoover described the Black Panthers as "the greatest threat to the internal security of the country". Leaders who were targeted included the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. One such attempt was to "intensify the degree of animosity" between the Black Panthers and the Blackstone Rangers , a Chicago street gang.

They sent an anonymous letter to the Ranger's gang leader claiming that the Panthers were threatening his life, a letter whose intent was to induce "reprisals" against Panther leadership. In Southern California similar actions were taken to exacerbate a "gang war" between the Black Panther Party and a black nationalist group called the US Organization. It was alleged that the FBI had sent a provocative letter to the US Organization in an attempt to increase existing antagonism between the two groups. The success of the Free Breakfast for Children Program served to "shed light on the government's failure to address child poverty and hunger—pointing to the limits of the nation's War on Poverty".

In response to this, as an effort of disassembling the program, "Police and Federal Agents regularly harassed and intimidated program participants, supporters, and Party workers and sought to scare away donors and organizations that housed the programs like churches and community centers". Newton during a traffic stop.

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In the stop, Newton and backup officer Herbert Heanes also suffered gunshot wounds. Newton was convicted of voluntary manslaughter at trial, but the conviction was later overturned. In his book Shadow of the Panther, writer Hugh Pearson alleges that Newton, while intoxicated in the hours before he was shot and killed, claimed to have willfully killed John Frey.

At the time, Newton claimed that he had been falsely accused, leading to the "Free Huey" campaign. This incident gained the party even wider recognition by the radical American left. As Newton awaited trial, the Black Panther party's "Free Huey" campaign developed alliances with numerous individuals, students and anti-war activists, "advancing an anti-imperialist political ideology that linked the oppression of antiwar protestors to the oppression of blacks and Vietnamese".

Carter was the leader of the Slauson street gang, and many of the LA chapter's early recruits were Slausons. At the age of three, he and his family moved to Oakland, California after being harassed by racist vigilante groups associated with the KU Klux Klan.

Pro-Tip: Surviving an Aggressive Officer

In December of , he became the first treasurer and recruit of the Black Panther Party at the age of just 16 years old. He became the first member of the party that was killed by police. On April 6, , two days after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

The group confronted Oakland Police officers and during the confrontation, two police officers were shot. Hutton and Cleaver fled to an apartment building where they engaged in a minute gun battle with the Oakland Police Department. Ultimately, Cleaver was wounded, and Hutton voluntarily surrendered. According to Cleaver, although Hutton had stripped down to his underwear and had his hands raised in the air to prove that he was unarmed, Oakland Police shot Hutton more than 12 times, leading to his death.

Two police officers were also shot. Although at the time the BPP claimed that the police had ambushed them, several party members later admitted that Cleaver had led the Panther group on a deliberate ambush of the police officers, provoking the shoot-out. Hutton's death became a rallying issue for Panther supporters. In , the group shortened its name to the Black Panther Party and sought to focus directly on political action.

Members were encouraged to carry guns and to defend themselves against violence. An influx of college students joined the group, which had consisted chiefly of "brothers off the block". This created some tension in the group. Some members were more interested in supporting the Panthers' social programs, while others wanted to maintain their "street mentality". Peak membership was near 5, by , and their newspaper , under the editorial leadership of Eldridge Cleaver , had a circulation of , Curtis Austin states that by late , Black Panther Party ideology had evolved to the point where they began to reject black nationalism and became more a "revolutionary internationalist movement":.

Its emphasis on Marxist—Leninist doctrine and its repeated espousal of Maoist statements signaled the group's transition from a revolutionary nationalist to a revolutionary internationalist movement. Every Party member had to study Mao Tse-tung's "Little Red Book" to advance his or her knowledge of peoples' struggle and the revolutionary process. Panther slogans and iconography spread.

At the Summer Olympics , Tommie Smith and John Carlos , two American medalists, gave the black power salute during the playing of the American national anthem. She actually ended up informally adopting the daughter of two Black Panther members, Mary Luana Williams. Fonda and other Hollywood celebrities became involved in the Panthers' leftist programs. The Panthers attracted a wide variety of left-wing revolutionaries and political activists, including writer Jean Genet , former Ramparts magazine editor David Horowitz who later became a major critic of what he describes as Panther criminality [93] and left-wing lawyer Charles R.

Garry , who acted as counsel in the Panthers' many legal battles.

Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

The BPP adopted a "Serve the People" program, which at first involved a free breakfast program for children. By the end of , the BPP had established 38 chapters and branches, claiming more than five thousand members. Eldridge and Kathleen Cleaver left the country days before Cleaver was to turn himself in to serve the remainder of a thirteen-year sentence for a rape conviction.

They settled in Algeria. By the end of the year, party membership peaked at around 2, Inspired by Mao Zedong 's advice to revolutionaries in The Little Red Book , Newton called on the Panthers to "serve the people" and to make "survival programs" a priority within its branches. The most famous of their programs was the Free Breakfast for Children Program , initially run out of an Oakland church. The Free Breakfast For Children program was especially significant because it served as a space for educating youth about the current condition of the Black community, and the actions that the Party was taking to address that condition.

The breakfast program became so popular that the Panthers Party claimed to have fed twenty thousand children in the school year. Other survival programs [98] were free services such as clothing distribution, classes on politics and economics, free medical clinics, lessons on self-defense and first aid, transportation to upstate prisons for family members of inmates, an emergency-response ambulance program, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, and testing for sickle-cell disease.

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These clinics were involved in community-based health care that had roots connected to the Civil Rights Movement, which made it possible to establish the Medical Committee for Human Rights. Violent conflict between the Panther chapter in LA and the US Organization , a black nationalist group, resulted in shootings and beatings, and led to the murders of at least four Black Panther Party members.

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However, to be effective, line officers and their supervisors must accept that value. Like the county poorhouse and scientific charity before them, digital tracking and automated decision-making hide poverty from the middle-class public and give the nation the ethical distance it needs to make inhumane choices: which families get food and which starve, who has housing and who remains homeless, and which families are broken up by the state. The success of the Free Breakfast for Children Program served to "shed light on the government's failure to address child poverty and hunger—pointing to the limits of the nation's War on Poverty". There is a tension between informing the public about an incident and getting the facts on that incident. You have reached the maximum number of selection. A professional organization also adheres to a code of ethics. The Leader-Post.

Another shootout between the two groups on March 17 led to further injuries. Two more Panthers died. Paramount to their beliefs regarding the need for individual agency in order to catalyze community change, the Black Panther Party BPP strongly supported the education of the masses. As part of their Ten-Point Program which set forth the ideals and goals of the party, they demanded an equitable education for all black people.

Number 5 of the "What We Want Now!

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We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present day society. The first Liberation School was opened by the Richmond Black Panthers in July with brunch served and snacks provided to students. Another school was opened in Mt.

Vernon New York on July 17 of the subsequent year. This number grew to fifty by the school year. In order to provide full support for Black Panther parents whose time was spent organizing, some of the students and faculty members lived together year around. The school itself was dissimilar to traditional schools in a variety of ways including the fact that students were separated by academic performance rather than age and students were often provided one on one support as the faculty to student ratio was The Panther's goal in opening Liberation Schools, and specifically the Intercommunal Youth Institute, was to provide students with an education that wasn't being provided in the "white" schools, [] as the public schools in the district employed a eurocentric assimilationist curriculum with little to no attention to black history and culture.

While students were provided with traditional courses such as English, Math, and Science, they were also exposed to activities focused on class structure and the prevalence of institutional racism.

One of them being critical thinking- that children should learn not what to think but how to think And it was In , due to increased interest in enrolling in the school, school officials decided to move to a larger facility and subsequently changed the school's name to Oakland Community School. During this year, the school graduated its first class.

The school eventually closed in due to governmental pressure on party leadership which caused insufficient membership and funds to continue running the school. The raid had been orchestrated by the police in conjunction with the FBI.